University of Mississippi Users’ Guide for Dublin Core Metadata Cataloging

Draft - April, 2005

Note: These guidelines are adapted from the Western States Dublin Core Metadata Best Practices, Version 2.0, January 2005.

Mandatory Elements

Title
Creator
Subject
Description
Date
Format
Identifier
Rights Management

Recommended Elements

Publisher
Contributor
Type
Source
Language
Relation
Coverage

General Input Guidelines

General grammatical rules should be followed when creating the metadata. In addition, it may be useful to consult the latest version of the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules for more information and details on general rules and guidelines for data entry.

Punctuation

Avoid ending punctuation unless it is part of the content of the resource.

Abbreviations

In general, the following abbreviations are allowed: common or accepted abbreviations (such as “ St.” for “Saint”); designations of functions (such as “ed.” for “Editor”); terms used with dates (b. or fl.); and distinguishing terms added to names of persons, if they are abbreviated on the item (such as “Mrs.”). Other bibliographic abbreviations, e.g., vol., no. and pp., can be used. The Chicago Manual of Style should be used as a guide. Abbreviations should not be used if they would make the record unclear. In case of doubt, spell out the abbreviation.

Capitalization

In general, capitalize the first word (of a title, for example) and proper names (place, personal, and organization names.) Capitalize content in the description elements according to the normal rules of writing. Acronyms should be entered in capital letters.

Initial Articles

Titles
Omit the initial articles at the beginning of the title such as: the, a, an, le, la , los, el, der, die, das, etc. and put them at the end of the title following a comma

Example: The golden age of American impressionism = Golden age of American impressionism, The

Publisher names
Omit initial articles in publisher names.

Non-Standard Characters
Have a clear understanding of how the database handles non-standard characters and /or diacritics (such as ü,é,ñ, etc.) and input them so that they display and retrieve effectively.

Title

Term Name: title

Label: Title

Dublin Core Definition: A name given to the resource.

Dublin Core Comment: Typically, Title will be a name by which the resource is formally known.

Additional Comments:
The name given to the resource by the creator or publisher; may also be an identifying phrase or name of the object supplied by the person creating the record.

Mandatory: Yes

Repeatable: Yes

Qualifiers:

Refiners:
Name: alternative
Label: Alternative
Definition: Any form of the title used as a substitute or alternative to the formal title of the resource.
Comment: This qualifier can include Title abbreviations as well as translations.

Schemes:
None

Input Guidelines:

  1. Enter multiple titles in the order in which they appear on the resource or in order of their importance. Use separate Title elements to enter multiple titles.
  2. Transcribe the title, if there is one, from the resource itself, such as a caption from a photograph or a title on a map.
  3. When no title is found on the resource itself, assign a title to the material. Use brackets to note that this is an assigned title.
  4. Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of the title an all proper names contained within the title.
  5. In general, transcribe titles and subtitles from the source using the same punctuation that appears on the source. If you have created the title, then use punctuation that would be appropriate for the English language.
  6. File names, accession numbers, call numbers, or other identification schemes should be entered in the Identifier element.
  7. Collections:
    1. If multiple items are being described as a collection by one record and no collection title already exists, create a collective title that is as descriptive as possible of the contents.
    2. If each item in such a collection is itself worthy of being described by its own record (i.e. item-level record), refer back to the collection-level title in the Relation element. Likewise, list any title for subordinate item-level records in the Relation element of the collection-level record.

Title Examples:

Titles created by creator/publisher Comments
University of Mississippi budget summary, The  Place any initial articles after comma at end of the title
Ole Miss Title [Alternative]: Yearbook of the University of Mississippi
Grisham : an exhibition 10 April - 10 August 1994, Special Collections, The University of Mississippi  
Hand-book Title [Alternative]: Hand-book ( University of Mississippi) Title [Alternative]: Handbook
 Reckoning board and tally stick, The Managerial accounting on the U.S. 1978 frontier  
Titles supplied by cataloger Comments
[Edward Boynton sitting in his lab] photograph of Edward Boynton in his lab with no title or label
[Portrait of Chester R. Anderson] photograph in the AICPA collection w/no label or title
[ University of Mississippi engraved envelope 1867 with letter]  
 [Prefatory matter]  
 [End matter]  

Maps to: Dublin Core Title

Creator

Term Name: creator

Label: Creator

Dublin Core Definition:
An entity primarily responsible for making the content of the resource.

Dublin Core Comment:
Examples of a Creator include a person, an organization, or a service. Typically, the name of a Creator should be used to indicate the entity.

Other Comments:
A person or entity primarily responsible for creating the intellectual content of the resource. Examples of creators include authors of written documents, artists, illustrators, photographers, collectors of specimens or artifacts, organizations that generate archival collections, corporations, etc.

Mandatory: Yes

Repeatable: Yes

Qualifiers: None

Input Guidelines:

  1. Enter multiple creators in the order in which they appear on the resource or in order of their importance. Use separate Creator elements to enter multiple creators.
  2. Secondary authors and editors may be entered using the Contributor element.
  3. Determine the correct form of the name when possible. The Library of Congress Authorities (http://authorities.loc.gov) or OCLC should be consulted when possible.
  4. A list of name authority records for Mississippi can be found online on the library’s intranet pages: http://home.olemiss.edu/%7Etharry/authorityrecords.html
  5. Enter personal names in inverted form in most cases: Last name, First Name, Middle Name or initial. If it is not obvious how to invert or structure a name, use the name form given in the library catalog or enter it as it would be in the country of origin.
  6. Enter group or organization names in full, direct form. In the case of hierarchy, list the parts from the largest to smallest, separated by periods.
  7. If there is a doubt as to how to enter a name and the form of name cannot be verified in a controlled vocabulary, enter it as it appears and do not invert. Example: Blind Jim
  8. If the creator is unknown, type in the word “Unknown”

Examples:

Personal Names Comments
Faulkner, William, 1897-1962  
Welty, Eudora, 1909-2001  
Muddy Waters, 1915-1983 Not Waters, Muddy
Dain, Martin J.  
Kohler, Eric Louis, 1892-1976  
Previts, Gary John  
Murphy, George J. (George Joseph)  
Group or Organization Names Comments
University of Mississippi . Dept. of Art  
University of Mississippi Board of Trustees  
American Institute of Certified Public Accountants  
American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. Accounitng Standards Executive Committee  
Academy of Accounting Historians. Research Committee  

Maps to: Dublin Core Creator

Subject

Term Name: subject

Label: Subject and Keywords

Dublin Core Definition: The topic of the content of the resources

Dublin Core Comment:
Typically, a Subject will be expressed as keywords, key phrases or classification codes that describe a topic of the resource. Recommended best practice is to select a value from a controlled vocabulary or formal classification scheme.

Additional Comments:
What the content of the resource is about or what it is, expressed by headings, keywords, phrases, or other terms for significant people, places, and events.

Mandatory: Yes

Repeatable: Yes

Qualifiers:

Refiners: None

Schemes: It is strongly recommended that subject words and phrases come from established thesauri or discipline-related word lists. Established recommended schemes are given in the DCMI Dublin Core Metadata Terms. Some examples of these include LCSH, AAT, GSAFD. Locally controlled lists of terms can be created as well if there is no acceptable thesauri (Example: USM created a Civil Rights vocabulary list for their Civil Rights in Mississippi Digital Archive )

Input Guidelines:

  1. Enter multiple subjects in the order of their importance (often based upon how much of the entire content is devoted to a particular subject.) Use separate Subject elements to enter multiple subjects.
  2. Use subject terms from established thesauri and classification schemes. A list of subject headings and name authority records for Mississippi can be found online on the library’s intranet pages
    Name authority records:
    http://home.olemiss.edu/%7Etharry/authorityrecords.html
    Subject headings:
    http://home.olemiss.edu/%7Etharry/subjectheadings.html
  3. To determine the subject, use the title, description, and resource itself.
  4. Use specific or unique words rather than more general words (example: if object is a picture of the Ole Miss football team, use the term University of Mississippi – Football instead of Football).
  5. Subjects may be personal or organization names as well as topics, places, genres, forms, and events.
  6. Subject elements may describe not only what an object is about, but also what it is. A poem about coal miners might have a heading for Coal miners – Poetry to show the subject of the poem, and then another heading for Poem to show what the object is. Subject elements in this Dublin-Core-based metadata format may contain different types of headings that in other formats are differentiated onto separate elements.
  7. If the subject is a person or organization, use the same form of name as if the person or organization were a Creator.

Notes:

  1. Subjects are different from the very broad categories found in the Type element. A digital image that is a photograph could be given the subject genre term photograph, but its genre type listed in the Type element would be “image”.
  2. Enter the names of creators of the object in the Creator element. Only repeat these names in the Subject element if the object is also about the creator in some way. (Example: A self-portrait of Edward Boynton would list Boynton, Edward Carlisle in both the Creator and Subject elements, but a photograph of the Lyceum by Edward Boynton would only have Boynton, Edward Carlisle in Creator element.)

Examples:

Subject Terms Subject Scheme / Comment
Faulkner, William, 1897-1962 -- Biography LCSH
Faulkner, William, 1897-1962 -- Pictorial works LCSH
Lafayette County ( Miss.) -- Pictorial works LCSH
African Americans -- Civil rights -- History -- 20th century LCSH
Muddy Waters, 1915- -- Performances LCSH
Auditing -- Standards -- United States LCSH
Finance, Public -- United States -- Auditing LCSH
Books -- Reviews LCSH
Canning industry -- Coast accounting LCSH
Managerial accounting -- United States -- History LCSH
Commerical law -- Babylonia LCSH

Maps to: Dublin Core Subject

Description

Term Name: description

Label: Description

Dublin Core Definition:
An account of the content of the resource.

Dublin Core Comment:
Description may include but is not limited to: an abstract, table of contents, reference to a graphical representation of content or a free-text account of the content.

Mandatory: Yes

Repeatable: Yes

Qualifiers:

Table of Contents
Name: tableOfContents
Label: Table Of Contents
Definition: A list of subunits of the content of the resource.

Abstract
Name: abstract
Label: Abstract
Definition: A summary of the content of the resource

Schemes: None

Input Guidelines:

  1. Enter multiple descriptions in the order of their importance. Use separate Description elements to enter multiple descriptions.
  2. Enter descriptive text, remarks, and comments about the digital object. This information can be taken from the object or provided by the contributing institution.
  3. Enter specialized information not included in other elements, for example, description, technique, and distinguishing features if observable in the digital object and inscriptions.

Examples:

Description Comments
Self-portrait of Professor Edward C. Boynton in his lab on the campus of the University of Mississippi description of scan of glass plate from Boynton Collection
“Alexanders Back from Dixie! (with His Ragtime Band)” by Lew Colwell (words) and Pete Wendling (music); Lee S. Roberts publisher (Chicago). Cover: drawing of an all black marching band parading through city streets description of sheet music from the Sheldon Harris Collection
Profiles novelist William Faulkner. Lack of formal training in education; Analysis of his fiction novels in literary classes in the U.S.; Acceptance of a visiting writer position at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia in 1956. Description [Abstract]
Mythic and archetypal criticism / Robert W. Hamblin -- Historical criticism / Theresa M. Towner -- Formalist criticism / D. Matthew Ramsey -- Biographical criticism / Kevin Railey -- Modernist criticism / Debrah Raschke -- Postmodern criticism / Terrell L. Tebbetts -- Cultural criticism / Peter Lurie -- Psychological criticism / Doreen Fowler -- Feminist and gender criticism / Caroline Carvill -- Rhetorical and reader-response criticism / Pamela Knights -- Popular-culture criticism / M. Thomas Inge -- Textual criticism / Amy E.C. Linnemann and Philip Cohen -- Thematic criticism / Charles A. Peek Description [Table of Contents]

Maps to: Dublin Core Description

Publisher

Term Name: publisher

Label: Publisher

Dublin Core Definition: An entity responsible for making the resource available

Dublin Core Comment:

Examples of a Publisher include a person, an organization, or a service. Typically, the name of a Publisher should be used to indicate the entity.

Additional Comments:

An entity that made the resource available. For digital objects, Publisher is the entity that created the digital resource. Publishers can be a corporate body, publishing house, museum, historical society, university, a project, a repository, etc.

Mandatory: No, but recommended

Repeatable: Yes

Qualifiers: None

Input Guidelines:

  1. Enter multiple publishers in the order in which they appear on the resource or in order of their importance. Use separate Publisher elements to enter multiple publishers.
  2. In the case of an object that existed in another form before being digitized, the publisher of the earlier form may be entered in the Source element. If a publisher of an earlier form is considered important to users and therefore for resource discovery, include it in a Contributor element.
  3. When in doubt about whether an entity is a publisher or a creator, enter a corporate entity as Publisher and a personal name as Creator.
  4. Use of authority files, such as Library of Congress Authorities (http://authorities.loc.gov) is encouraged.
  5. A list of name authority records for Mississippi can be found online on the library’s intranet pages (right now on Tina’s pages)
    Name authority records: http://home.olemiss.edu/%7Etharry/authorityrecords.html
  6. Omit initial articles in publisher names.
  7. Enter group or organization names in full, direct form. In the case of a hierarchy, list the parts from the largest to smallest, separated by commas.
  8. If the publisher is the same as the creator, enter the name or entity in both the Publisher and Creator elements.

Examples:

Publisher element Comments
University of Mississippi Archives and Special Collections These are publishers of the digital object - we scanned the digital image, but did not create the original
University of Mississippi Library  
University of Mississippi Library. Accounting Collection  
Contributor element Comments
American Institute of Certified Public Accountants Published the print book / article that was later digitized.
Source element Comments
From the Edward C. Boynton Collection describes where the original photograph is located

Maps to: Dublin Core Publisher

Contributor

Term Name: contributor

Label: Contributor

Dublin Core Definition:
An entity responsible for making contributions to the content of the resource.

Dublin Core Comment:
Examples of a Contributor include a person, an organization, or a service. Typically, the name of a Contributor should be used to indicate the entity.

Additional Comment:
The person(s) or organization(s) that made significant intellectual contributions to the resource but whose contribution is secondary to any person(s) or organization(s) already specified in a Creator element. Examples: editor, transcriber, illustrator, etc.

Mandatory: No

Repeatable: Yes

Qualifiers:

Refinements: None

Schemes: None

Input Guidelines:

  1. Enter multiple contributors in the order in which they appear on the resource or in the order of their importance. Use separate elements to enter multiple contributors.
  2. Determine the correct form of the name when possible. The Library of Congress Authorities (http://authorities.loc.gov) or OCLC should be consulted when possible.
  3. A list of name authority records for Mississippi can be found online on the library’s intranet pages (right now on Tina’s pages) Name authority records:

    http://home.olemiss.edu/%7Etharry/authorityrecords.html
  4. Enter personal names in inverted form in most cases: Last name, First Name, Middle Name or initial. If it is not obvious how to invert or structure a name, use the name form given in the library catalog or enter it as it would be in the country of origin.
  5. Enter group or organization names in full, direct form. In the case of hierarchy, list the parts from the largest to smallest, separated by periods.
  6. If there is a doubt as to how to enter a name and the form of name cannot be verified in a controlled vocabulary, enter it as it appears and do not invert. Example: Blind Jim
  7. Optional: The function of a contributor may be included in parentheses after the name. For example: Chubbuck, Lyndon (director) – director of the 1982 film adaptation of A Rose for Emily
  8. Place entities responsible for digitizing an existing resource in the Publisher element not the Contributor element.
Examples: see Creator element for examples of how to enter names / corp. for element

Maps to: Dublin Core Contributor

Date

Term Name: date

Label: Date

Dublin Core Definition: A date associated with an event in the life cycle of the resource.

Dublin Core Comment:
Typically, Date will be associated with the creation or availability of the resource. Recommended best practice for encoding the date value is defined in a profile of ISO 8601 [W3CDTF] and follows the YYYY-MM-DD format.

Additional Comment:
Date of creation or availability of the digital resource. The contributing institution may approximate the date a resource was digitized.

Mandatory: Yes

Repeatable: Yes

Qualifiers:

Created
Name:
created
Label: Created
Definition: Date of the creation of the resource.
Additional Comment: This is the date of the creation of the digital resource
If the date of creation of the resource is known, and that date is important to note specifically (e.g., there are other relevant dates to record), use the term Created for the creation date of the resource. Note that the "one-to-one" rule requires that the creation date be that of the resource being described, not any early version from which the current resource is derived.

Valid
Name: valid
Label: Valid
Definition: Date (often a range) of validity of a resource.
Additional Comments: If the resource is only valid or relevant for a particular date or range of dates, the term Valid may be used to express those dates. This may be particularly important if the resource will be retained over time but its use is valid only during a particular period or until a particular date.

Available
Name: available
Label: Available
Definition: Date (often a range) that the resource will become or did become available.
Additional Comments: In general, the term Available should be used in the case of a resource for which the date of availability may be distinct from the date of creation, and the date of availability is relevant to the use of the resource.

Issued
Name: issued
Label: Issued
Definition: Date of formal issuance (e.g., publication) of the resource.
Additional Comments: The creation of the original resource
The term Issued should be applied when a formal date of issuance or publication is relevant to the resource, and is distinct from other dates that may be used with the resource.

Modified
Name: modified
Label: Modified
Definition: Date on which the resource was changed.
Additional Comments: Modified dates may be used to record either all instances of modification or only the latest. When only one modified date is recorded, it is assumed to be the latest.

Encoding Schemes for Date:
DCMI Period
Name: Period
Label: DCMI Period
Definition: A specification of the limits of a time interval.

W3C-DTF
Name: W3CDTF
Label: W3C-DTF
Definition: W3C Encoding rules for dates and times - a profile based on ISO 8601

Input Guidelines:

  1. Enter dates in the form YYYY-MM-DD in accordance with the W3C Date Time Format (W3C-DTF) encoding scheme. Use a hyphen to separate the year, month, and date components:
    1. Year: YYYY (1897 for the year 1897)
    2. Year and month: YYYY-MM (1807-07 for July 1897)
    3. Complete date: YYYY-MM-DD (1897-07-16 for July 16, 1897)
  2. For a range of dates, enter the dates in accordance with the DCMI Period encoding scheme, separating them with a space, hyphen, space as in 1910-1920.
  3. Follow dates with a question mark (1897?) to show a date is approximate or a circa date.
  4. Enter dates for different purposes in separate Date elements; i.e., date resource created and date modified.
  5. When date is unknown and can not be estimated use n.d.

Notes:
Include other date information about the original resource in the Coverage, Description, or Source elements as appropriate.

Examples:

Date [Created] Comment
2004-04-05 Digital object created April 5, 2004
2005 - 01 Digital object created in January, 2005, exact date not known
Date [Issued] Comment
1998-07-07 Accounting Article in Journal published July 7, 1998
1962-11 Photograph taken after Meredith enrolled at the University of Mississippi, exact date unknown
1937? Approximate year a photograph was shot
1856? - 1861? Approximate date range for set of glass plates in the Boynton Collection
Date [Modified] Comment
2005-01-18 Digital object created on April 5, 2004 and then modified on 2005-01-18 - Open Door Oral History digital video edited to exclude 2 minutes of test footage

Maps to: Dublin Core Date

Type

Term Name: type

Label: Type

Dublin Core Definition:
The nature or genre of the content of the resource

Dublin Core Comment:
Type includes terms describing general categories, functions, genres, or aggregation levels for content. Recommended best practice to select a value from a controlled vocabulary (for example: the DCMI Type Vocabulary [DCMITYPE]). To describe the physical or digital manifestation of the resource, use the Format element.

Additional Comment:
Use DCMI Type Vocabulary for the Type element.

Mandatory: No

Repeatable: Yes

Qualifiers:

Refinements: None

Schemes: DCMI Type Vocabulary [available online: http://dublincore.org/documents/dcmi-type-vocabulary/ ]

 Input Guidelines:

  1. Some digital objects may involve more than one type, e.g. a manuscript collection, may have text, image, sound and interactive components. Use separate Type elements to enter multiple types.

Examples:

DCMI Type Vocabluary Comments
Collection A collection is an aggregation of items. The term collection means that the resource is described as a group; its parts may be separately described and navigated.
Dataset A dataset is information encoded in a defined structure (for example, lists, tables, and databases), intended to be useful for direct machine processing.
Event An event is a non-persistent, time-based occurrence. Metadata for an event provides descriptive information that is the basis for discovery of the purpose, location, duration, responsible agents, and links to related events and resources. The resource of type event may not be retrievable if the described instantiation has expired or is yet to occur. Examples - exhibition, web-cast, conference, workshop, open-day, performance, battle, trial, wedding, tea-party, conflagration.
Image An image is a primarily symbolic visual representation other than text. For example - images and photographs of physical objects, paintings, prints, drawings, other images and graphics, animations and moving pictures, film, diagrams, maps, musical notation. Note that image may include both electronic and physical representations.
Still Image  A static visual representation. Examples of still images are: paintings, drawings, graphic designs, plans and maps. Recommended best practice is to assign the type "text" to images of textual materials. Instances of the type "Still Image" must also be describable as instances of the broader type "Image".
Moving Image A series of visual representations that, when shown in succession, impart an impression of motion. Examples of moving images are: animations, movies, television programs, videos, zoetropes, or visual output from a simulation.
Interactive Resource An interactive resource is a resource which requires interaction from the user to be understood, executed, or experienced. For example - forms on web pages, applets, multimedia learning objects, chat services, virtual reality.
Physical Object An inanimate, three-dimensional object or substance. For example -- a computer, the great pyramid, a sculpture. Note that digital representations of, or surrogates for, these things should use Image, Text or one of the other types.
Service A service is a system that provides one or more functions of value to the end-user. Examples include: a photocopying service, a banking service, an authentication service, interlibrary loans, a Z39.50 or Web server.
Software Software is a computer program in source or compiled form which may be available for installation non-transiently on another machine. For software which exists only to create an interactive environment, use interactive instead.
Sound A sound is a resource whose content is primarily intended to be rendered as audio. For example - a music playback file format, an audio compact disc, and recorded speech or sounds.
Text A text is a resource whose content is primarily words for reading. For example - books, letters, dissertations, poems, newspapers, articles, archives of mailing lists. Note that facsimiles or images of texts are still of the genre text.

Maps to: Dublin Core Type

Format

Term Name: format

Label: Format

Dublin Core Definition: The physical or digital manifestation of the resource.

Dublin Core Comment:
Typically, Format may include the media-type or dimensions of the resource. Format may be used to identify the software, hardware, or other equipment needed to display or operate the resource. Examples of dimensions include size and duration. Recommended best practice is to select a value from a controlled vocabulary (for example, the list of Internet Media Types [MIME] defining computer media formats).

Additional Comment:
Use the Format element to record the Internet Media Type (IMT scheme. Use the Extent refinement to record a resource’s file size and / or duration. Use the Medium refinement to describe an item’s physical (as opposed to digital) nature. The Format element is reserved for describing the access file only (be it image, audio, or video).

Mandatory: Yes

Repeatable: Yes

Qualifiers:

Refinements:

Extent: The size or duration of the resource.

Medium: The material or physical carrier of the resource.

Schemes:

IMT: Internet Media Type
http://www.iana.org/assignments/media-types/

Input Guidelines:

  1. Some digital objects may involve more than one format, for example, an oral history interview may have audio formats and text format transcriptions. Use separate Format elements to enter multiple formats.
  2. Enter formats for different purposes as separate Format elements, i.e. separate file size and duration entries.
  3. Select electronic format terms from the Internet Media Types (IMT) standardized list also known as MIME types.
  4. Size should be the highest appropriate measure (Bytes, Kilobytes, Megabytes or Gigabytes) to provide the most meaning to the end users, e.g. KB (kilobytes) for still images, Megabytes (MB) or Gigabytes (GB) for video or sound recordings.
  5. For audio and video file formats include the duration (i.e., the playtime) of the resource.
  6. New media types and applications are always emerging. If the resource format being described is not yet part of the MIME type list, follow the MIME convention by selecting a broad category of object format (audio, video, application, etc.) for the first part of the MIME type, then use as a brief identifier for the second half of the MIME type the file name suffix that is usually attached to files of this format.
  7. Use standard abbreviations for file sizes KB for kilobytes, MB for megabyte, GB for gigabyte, etc.
  8. For time if it is 1 hour, 5 minutes, 30 seconds it should be entered as Format [Extent]: 01:05:30

Notes:
The Format element may influence a user’s decision on whether or not s/he will access the described resource. When the resource being described requires the use of software, hardware, and/or other infrastructures that are external to the resource itself, record that information in the Relation [Requires] element. Take for example, a Dublin Core record for the digitized version of a handwritten letter that is delivered to the user as a PDF file, and Adobe Acrobat Reader (which is eternal to the resource being described) is required to view that PDF file. In this scenario, the metadata would be entered as follows:

Format [Medium]: application/pdf
Format [Extent]: 3,125 KB
Relation [Requires]: Adobe Acrobat Reader

MP3 example:
Format [Medium]: audio/mp3
Format [Extent]: 3.0517578 MB
Format [Extent]: 00:05:00
Relation [Requires]: Real Audio Player

Examples:

Format [Medium] Comment
application/pdf IMT scheme
audio/mp3 IMT scheme
Format [Extent]: Comment
3,125 KB size of image file
3.0517578 MB size of audio file
0:05:00 5 minute long audio file

Maps to: Dublin Core Format

Identifier

Term Name: identifier

Label: Resource Identifier

Dublin Core Definition: An unambiguous reference to the resource within a given context.

Dublin Core Comment:
Recommended best practice is to identify the resource by means of a string or number conforming to a formal identification system. Formal identification systems include the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) [including the Uniform Resource Locator (URL)], the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) and the International Standard Book Number (ISBN).

Additional Comments:
A character string or record number that clearly and uniquely identifies a digital object or resource. The Identifier element ensures that individual digital objects can be accessed, managed, stored, recalled, and used reliably. Input ISSN, ISBN, other international standard numbers, local naming conventions that describe the original in Source.

Mandatory: Yes

Repeatable: Yes

Qualifiers:

Refinements: None

Schemes: URI - Uniform Resource Identifier - http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2396.txt

Input Guidelines:

  1. Enter multiple identifiers in order of their importance. Use separate Identifier elements to enter multiple identifiers. Recommended best practice is to include identifiers from different Schemes in separate elements.
  2. Recommended best practice is to identify the resource by means of a string or number conforming to a formal identification system. Examples of formal identification systems include the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) or the Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
  3. For multi-piece, multi-part digital objects such as each individual page image of scanned text, best practice is to identify each page image with a predictable naming scheme locally, but to share one metadata record for the text as a single, whole resource.

Examples:

Element Value Definition
DOI:10.1038/35057062 "Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome", International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium, Nature 409, 860 - 921 (2001);
http://gsbwww.uchicago.edu/research/journals/jar/ URL for Journal of Accounting Research

For Further examples, see the Library of Congress Naming Conventions for Digital Resources at http://www.loc.gov/marc/naming.html and Northwestern University’s Standards for Long-Term Storage and File Naming Conventions at http://staffweb.library.northwestern.edu/dl/adhocdigitization/storage/

Maps to: Dublin Core Identifier

Source

Term Name: source

Label: Source

Dublin Core Definition: A reference to a resource from which the present resource is derived.

Dublin Core Comment:
The present resource may be derived from the source resource in whole or in part. Recommended best practice is to reference the resource by means of a string or number conforming to a formal identification system.

Additional Comments:
When applicable, use the Source element to cite any other resource from which the digital resource was derived, either in whole or in part. Some digital resources are “born digital” and derive from no pre-existing resource; in these cases, the Source element is not used.

Mandatory: No

Repeatable: Yes

Qualifiers:

Refinements: None

Schemes:
URI – Uniform Resource Locator - http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2396.txt

Input guidelines:

  1. Enter multiple source information in order of their importance. Use separate Source elements to enter multiple sources. Usually there will only be one source from which the present digital resource has been derived.
  2. If, as in most cases, the Source element describes an originating resource upon which the digital resource is somehow based, then also include a Relation element such as Relation [IsVersionOf] – see Relation element for more information. Such Relation elements often duplicate information given in the Source element, but in shorter form and often with a hyperlink added.
  3. The Source element may consist of a combination of elements such as free text combined with a formal identification system (such as an ISBN to describe a book or journal).
  4. Whenever possible, include a unique standard identifier such as an ISBN, ISSN, or LC call number. IF no standard identifier exists, use a local call number, control number, accession number, or barcode. Identify the institution associated with such locally derived numbers.
  5. Clarify the nature of the relationship between the two resources by using an initial phrase such as Originally published as:; Excerpted from:; Original book:; Original format:; or Reproduction of:; etc.

Notes:

  1. The source element usually is used in conjunction with a corresponding Relation element. Because Source elements show a derivative relationship with another resource, they generally have a corresponding Relation element to show that relationship. Not all Relation elements however, conversely require a corresponding Source element because not all related resources are derivative. For example, a resource might require another resource to support it or it might be referenced by another resource. In both these cases, a Relation element might be required (i.e. Relation [Requires] and Relation [IsReferencedBy]), but a Source element would not be. See Relation for more information.
  2. In general, include information about a previous version which does not fit easily into Relation.

Example:

Source Comments
Original letter:ALS. Linchburge Va Camp Davis, May 13, 1861. Letter from John Guy Lofton to his wife regarding his doubt of a battle at Harper’s Ferry but predicting a possible battle on the Potomac and discussing religious life in camp. University of Mississippi Special Collections, Accession No. 2004-11, box 1, folder 8 Digitized reproduction of a handwritten letter described in Source element
Reproduction of: collodion glass plate negative from the Edward C. Boynton Collection, Collection #P2005-3, box 1, folder 1 Textual description of digital reproduction of image from the Boynton Collection
Originally published by: Academy of Accounting Historians scan from an article that was originally published by the AAH

 Maps to: Dublin Core Source

Language

Term Name: language

Label: Language

Dublin Core Definition: A language of the intellectual content of the resource.

Additional Comment:
Indicates the language(s) of the intellectual content of the resource. This implies the language(s) in which a text is written or the spoken language(s) of an audio or video resource. Visual images do not usually have a language unless there is significant text in a caption or in the image itself.

Mandatory: No

Repeatable: Yes

Qualifiers:

Refinements: None

Schemes: ISO639-2 - ISO 639-2 - Code for the Representation of Names of Languages Part 2 http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/englangn.html

Input Guidelines:

1. A resource may include multiple languages. Use separate Language elements to enter multiple languages.

2. Indicate language using three-letter language codes defined by ISO 639-2. These are found online at http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/englangn.html

3. In addition to using language codes, if needed, a textual description of the nature of the language may be included in the Description element. Example: In Spanish, with optional English subtitles

Examples:

Language Code Definition
spa Spanish
eng English
ger German
yid Yiddish

Maps to: Dublin Core Language

Relation

Term name: relation

Label: Relation

Dublin Core Definition: A reference to a related resource

Dublin Core Comment:
Recommended best practice is to reference the resource by means of a string or number conforming to a formal identification system.

Addition Comments:
The element contains information necessary to show a relationship with another resource. A relationship may be multi-directional (i.e. a record may reference one or more other related resources). There may also be a one-directional relationship, even though a refinement may exist to show reciprocity (e.g. the use of Relation [Requires] does not necessitate the use of Relation [Is Required By] in another record). The relationship may be one of intellectual content variation (Is Version Of / Has Version), part-to-whole (Is Part Of/Has Part), citation/reference (References / Is Referenced By, Conforms To), substitution (Replaces / Is Replaced By), format variation (Has Format / Is Format Of), or dependency (Requires / Is Required By).

The element may consist of textual information about the related resource relevant to the specific refinement; it may also consist of an identifier, such as a URI, for linking directly to the other resource.

Mandatory: No

Repeatable: Yes

Qualifiers:

Refinements :
Use one of the following refinements to explain the nature of the relationship between the described resource (i.e. the resource being described by the metadata record) and the related resource being referred to in the Relation element.

Refinement Name Refinement Label Comment
IsVersionOf Is Version Of The described resource is a version, edition, or adaptation of the referenced resource. Changes in version imply substantive changes in content rather than different format.
hasVersion Has Version The described resource has a version, edition, or adaptation namely the referenced resource.
isReplacedBy Is Replaced By The described resource is supplanted, displaced or superseded by the referenced resource.
replaces Replaces The described resource supplants, displaces or supersedes the referenced resource.
isRequiredBy Is Required By The described resource is required by the referenced resource, either physically or logically.
requires Requires The described resource requires the referenced resource to support its functionality, delivery, or coherence of content.
isPartOf Is Part Of The described resource is a physical or logical part of the referenced resource.
hasPart Has Part The described resource includes the referenced resource either physically or logically.
isReferencedBy Is Referenced By The described resource is referenced, cited, or otherwise pointed to by the referenced resource.
references References The described resource references, cites, or points to the referenced resource.
isFormatOf Is Format Of The described resource is the same intellectual content of the referenced resource, but presented in another format
hasFormat Has Format The described resource pre-existed the referenced resource, which is essentially the same intellectual content presented in another format.
conformsTo Conforms To A reference to an established standard to which the resource conforms.

 

Schemes:
URI – URI – Uniform Resource Identifier

Input guidelines:

  1. Use separate Relation elements to enter multiple relations.
  2. A resource may relate to another resource in a variety of ways that can be described by using more than one Relation element. For example, the same resource can be a part of a larger resource while simultaneously containing a smaller resource within itself; it can be a more recent version of one resource and be superseded by another. A resource can be a different version of another resource, or contain the same intellectual content as another resource, but be in a different format.
  3. Include sufficient information in the Relation element to enable users to identify, cite, and either locate or link to the related resource.

Examples:

Relation [Refinement] Relation Entry Comments
Relation [Is Version Of] Second ed. Another edition of the same work
Relation [Is Part Of] Accounting History. Nov 2002. Vol. 7, Iss. 2; p. 93 (32 pages) The described resource is the article and nothing else
Relation [Is Part Of] Photograph Collection of William Wert Cooper, Jr., 1962. University of Mississippi Archives and Special Collections. P2005-2.  
Relation [Has Part] Accounting History. Nov 2002. Vol. 7, Iss. 2; p. 93 (32 pages) The described resource is an anthology that includes this article as well as other articles each of which is described in another Relation [Has Part] element
Relation [Is Version Of] Adaptation of The Sound and the Fury by William Faulkner  
Relation [Has Version] Collection of recorded fairy tales read from various sources including: Babar the King (New York: Random House, 1935)  
Relation [Is Format Of] Digital reproduction of a poster for the Film Intruder in the Dust.  
Relation [References] The American system of practical book-keeping /
James Arlington Bennet; Benjamin Franklin Foster. ISBN: 0405075413
 
Relation [Is References By] Equity smirks' and embedded options: the shape of a firm's value function. Ostaszewski, Adam J. Accounting & Business Research, 2004, Vol 34, Issue 4. p301.  
Relation [Replaces] Western States Dublins Core Metadata Best Practices, version 1.0, January 2003  
Relation [Is Replaced By] Western States Dublin Core Metadata Best Practices, version 2.0 January 2005  
Relation [Requires] Adobe Acrobat Reader, version 6.0 or higher  
Relation [Is Part Of] Edward C. Boynton in his Lab, Image B1F1. Record for a close up of an image of Edward C. Boynton in his lab that is only part of the image
Relation [Conforms To} Encoded Archival Description, Version 2002 Record for an archival finding aid encoded in EAD XML

Maps to: Dublin Core Relation

Coverage

Term Name: coverage

Label: Coverage

Dublin Core Definition: The extend or scope of the content of the resource

Dublin Core Comment:
Coverage will typically include spatial location (a place name or geographic coordinates), temporal period (a period label, date, or date range) or jurisdiction (such as a named administrative entity). Recommended best practice is to select a value from a controlled vocabulary (for example, the Thesaurus of Geographic Names [TGN] ) and that, where appropriate, use named places or time periods in preference to numeric identifiers such as sets of coordinates or date ranges.

Additional Comments:
Coverage describes the spatial or temporal characteristics of the intellectual content of the resource. Spatial refers to the location(s) covered by the intellectual content of the resource (i.e., place names; longitude and latitude; celestial sector; etc.) not the place of publication. Temporal coverage refers to the time period covered by the intellectual content of the resource (e.g. Jurassic; 1900-1920), not the publication date. For artifacts or art objects, the spatial characteristics usually refer to the place where the artifact / object originated while the temporal characteristics refer to the date or time period during which the artifact / object was made.

Mandatory: No

Repeatable: Yes

Qualifiers:

Qualifiers that refine Coverage :
Spatial
Name: spatial
Label: Spatial
Definition: Spatial characteristics of the intellectual content of the resource.

Encoding Schemes for Spatial :
DCMI Point

Name: Point
Label: DCMI Point
Definition: The DCMI Point identifies a point in space using its geographic coordinates.
See also: http://dublincore.org/documents/dcmi-point/

ISO 3166
Name: ISO3166
Label: ISO 3166
Definition: ISO 3166 Codes for the representation of names of countries
See also: http://www.din.de/gremien/nas/nabd/iso3166ma/codlstp1/index.html

DCMI Box
Name: Box
Label: DCMI Box
Definition: The DCMI Box identifies a region of space using its geographic limits.
See also: http://dublincore.org/documents/dcmi-box/

TGN
Name: TGN
Label: TGN
Definition: The Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
See also: http://shiva.pub.getty.edu/tgn_browser/

Temporal
Name: temporal
Label: Temporal
Definition: Temporal characteristics of the intellectual content of the resource.

Encoding Schemes for Temporal :

DCMI Period
Name: Period
Label: DCMI Period
Definition: A specification of the limits of a time interval.
See also: http://dublincore.org/documents/dcmi-period/

W3C-DTF
Name: W3CDTF
Label: W3C-DTF
Definition: W3C Encoding rules for dates and times - a profile based on ISO 8601
See also: http://www.w3.org/TR/NOTE-datetime

Notes:
Other standards not yet recommended by DCMI but used

Spatial
GNIS – Geographical Name Information System
http://geonames.usgs.gov/index.html

OSGRS – Ordnance Survey Grid Reference System
http://www.sewhgpgc.co.uk/os.html

Terms from controlled vocabularies such as Library of Congress Subject Headings for recording time periods (Example: Middle Ages)

Input Guidelines:

  1. Multiple places, physical regions, dates, and time periods may be associated with the intellectual content of the resource. No hierarchy is implied. Use separate Coverage elements to enter multiple spatial and temporal values.
  2. If using place names, select terms from Library of Congress Subject Headings.
  3. If using latitude /longitude, enter according to Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) standards.
  4. Use free text to input B.C.E. dates as in 200 B.C.E.
  5. For a range of dates, enter the dates on the same line, separating them with a space, hyphen, and space as in 1900-1950.
  6. Follow dates with a question mark (1997?) to show a date is approximate, or a circa date.

Examples:

Coverage [Spatial] Comment
342303N0893206W Latitude /Longitude for University - Oxford Airport
313056N0894703W Latitude /Longitude for Taylor Cemetery, Jefferson Davis County, Mississippi
Vicksburg Place name
Coverage [Temporal] Comment
Civil War Time Period
1776-07-04 Date for July 4, 1976
1861? Approximate date
19th century Time Period

Maps to: Dublin Core Coverage

Rights Management

Term Name: rights

Label: Rights Management

Dublin Core Definition: Information about rights held in and over the resource.

Dublin Core Comment:
Typically, a Rights Management element will contain a rights management statement for the resource, or reference a service providing such information. Rights information often encompasses Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), Copyright and various Property Rights. If the Rights Management element is absent, no assumptions can be made about the status of these and other rights with respect to the resource.

Additional Comments:
The content of this element is intended to be a rights management or usage statement, a URL that links to a rights management statement, or a URL that links to a service providing information on rights management for the resource. A rights management statement may contain information concerning accessibility, reproduction of images, copyright holder restrictions, securing permissions for use of text or image, etc.

Mandatory: Yes

Repeatable: yes

Qualifiers:

Refinements: None

Schemes: None

Examples:

Rights Management Comment
http://www.copyright.cornell.edu/training/Hirtle_Public_Domain.htm URL for copyright information
This audio file may be freely used for educational purpurposes Free text rights management
Copyright to this resource is held by XXX and is provided here for educational purposes only. It may not be downloaded, reproduced, or distributed in any format without written permission of XXX. Any attempts to circumvent the access controls placed on this file is a violation of United States and internal copyright laws, and is subject to criminal prosecution.  

Maps to: Dublin Core Rights Management

 


Digital Accounting Collections Home About the Collection Questions and Comments

Copyright; 1995-2008 The University of Mississippi. All rights reserved.     Last Modified: Thursday, 06-Oct-2005 16:47:20 CDT